The following glossary includes words in Sinhalese and South Indian usage in the early C18th (in italics), English language words (excluding military terms), or words coined and/or derived from other languages.
adigar (abbr. adigarama): chief officer in the Kandyan Kingdom, chief minister.
angula: flat-bottomed boat.
arrack: spirit distilled from coconut palm sap; highly alcoholic (from Arabic araq=juice).
atapattuwa (also atapattu) : name of a class of militia who acted as the kings bodyguard (see also: maduva)
ayuveda: indigenous system of medicine.
batta: rice; extra allowance of pay granted to troops in India.
bo-tree (also bodhi): a tree sacred to Buddhists (ficus religiosa).
burgher: person of European ancestry.
cadjan: palm leaves matted or plaited together to form a thatch or roof.
caffree (also kaffir): African native, brought to Ceylon as a slave or mercenary soldier by Portuguese, Dutch or British.Candia: variant term for Kandy.
chalia: caste mainly employed in collecting cinnamon.
chetty (also chitty, chettiar): individual of any of the South-Indian trading castes; merchant, banker, money-lender, broker.
cinnamonchena: high land used for shifting cultivation.
Cingalese (also Cinglasse) - early variant spelling for Sinhalese people.
coir: rope or cordage made from the fibrous husks of the coconut.
conocopolly: personal secretary - a person responsible for paying accounts, supervising servants, and assisting in buying, selling and debt collection.coolie: person who carries a load.
creese (also kris): dagger or knife with a curved blade used by Malays.
crore: numerical value of ten million.
dagoba: a solid hemispherical dome enshrining religious relics or the remains of kings.
Dalada: tooth-relic of the Buddha.
Dalada Maligava: Temple of the Tooth Relic (in Kandy).
deniya: low, marshy ground.
devale (or devala): temple or shrine (Buddhist or Hindu).
disava (also disawa): governor of a province or disavane in the Kandyan Kingdom.
dhony (also dhoney or dony): a small sailing vessel or ferry boat.
disavane (also disawane): province.
dooly (also dhooly): a covered chair or palanquin, often used to carry a sick person.
Dutch Burgher: (primarily) the descendants of the Dutch who came to Sri Lanka in C16th-C18th.
elephant rupee: British silver rixdollar.
Esala Perahera: festival of the full moon in the month of Esala (July-August).
fanam: small coin, one-twelfth of a rixdollar.
gabadagama: royal village.
gama (pl. gam): village.
gamika: village headman.
grog: mixture of rum and water
half-pay: pay accorded to an officer who held a commission but had no employment.HEIC: Honourable East India Company [English], established in 1600.
havildaru (also havildar): Sepoy non-commissioned officer, corresponding to a sergeant.
hevaya: native soldier [named lascarin by Europeans].
jaggery: brown sugar made from palm sap.
jawas: Malays brought to Ceylon as soldiers by the Dutch; some were in the Kandyan service.
jungle: originally meant waste-land or uncultivated ground; later, ground covered with shrubs, trees or long grass; Anglo-Indian application is to a forest, thicket, or tangled wilderness.
kadawatu: thorn gates used for closing and guarding public thoroughfares.katcheri (also cutchery, kachcheri): local government office.
korala: official responsible for the administration of a pattuva.
korale (also korle ): territorial division, unit of administration.
lakh: numerical value of 100,000.
lascar: deck-hand on board ship; also labourer employed in dragging artillery or pitching military tents ( i.e. gun-lascar).
lascarin (also lascareen): term used by Europeans to describe Sri Lankan auxiliary troops; inferior in discipline to a sepoy.
maduva: Kandyan military force - divided into several departments to form a small standing army or militia.
Malays: originally came to Sri Lanka as soldiers of the Dutch army in the C18th.
modelliar or modliar: a native headman or chief military officer.
mohindiram: a title of rank - a senior official.moonstone: the semi-circular stone step at the entrance to a shrine; also a gemstone. Moors: Muslim traders from the Arabian peninsular and South India - first mentioned in Ceylon in early C8th. To the Kandyan Sinhalese those Muslims domiciled in the Kingdom were known as marakkalayo and those on the coast as hanbankarayo; known by the Portuguese as Moors.
mudaliyar: chief military officer commanding hevaya or Sinhalese militia; higher in rank than a mohindiram.
muncheel (also monchiel): a type of hammock-litter slung on long poles, used as a substitute for a palanquin or dooly.
Nayakkars: last ruling dynasty of Sri Lanka. Founded in 1739 by Sri Vijaya Rajasingha, who ascended the Kandyan throne. The Nayakkars were of Telegu origin from Madurai, South India; integrated themselves fully into Sinhalese-Buddhist society - all of them were keen patrons of Buddhism. Last king: Sri Vikrama Raja Sinha (1780-1832) was captured by the British in 1815 and exiled to Vellore, India.
nulla [also nullah]: watercourse.
ola: palm-leaf on which writing is inscribed with a stylus and afterwards rubbed with lamp-black and gum.
oya: seasonal river.
paddy: rice in the husk.
paduva: caste of palanquin bearers.
pagoda: gold coin current in South India and Ceylon. Two kinds: (1) Star pagoda, coined by the East India company at Madras and worth 8 shillings; (2) Porto Novo pagoda, coined by the Dutch at Tuticorin and by the Nawabs of Arcot. 100 Star pagodas were worth 120 Porto Novo pagodas.
palanquin (also palankin): a box-shaped litter with poles attached (for a single person), carried on mens shoulders (see: paduva).
pattamar: a lateen-rigged ship, with one, two or three masts. Common on the western coast of India.
pattuva (pl. pattu): subdivided district within a korale.
peon (also pion): orderly or messenger.
perahara: procession, pageant; the most important of which is the Kandy Esala Perahera.
pettah: town attached or adjacent to a fortress; pettah was sometimes separately fortified.
punkah: fan-like device for circulating air in a room, operated by a cord pulled by hand.
pura: city, town.
putrid fever: early colloquialism for typhus.
raja: king, ruler; prefix maha means great.
rixdollar: name of the Spanish dollar (peso) struck by the British East India Company for Ceylon from 1803. The value of the coin in 1814 was equivalent to 21/2 English shillings. The name is part-copy, part-translation of the Dutch coinage rijksdaalder, consisting of 12 fanams or 48 stuivers.
salver: tray used for handing out refreshments, or presenting letters, visiting cards etc.
sepoy: Indian private soldier (of infantry), commonly used as an adjective (e.g. 'sepoy regiment') or in the plural to describe Indian soldiers in general.
Sinhala: language of the Sinhalese people.
stiver: British coin issued in Ceylon in early C19th; English spelling of Dutch coin stuiver.
subedar: officer rank corresponding to lieutenant.
tank: lake or artificial pond created for irrigation or bathing.
tappal: courier post.
tiffen: midday meal.
toddy: lightly-fermented drink from coconut palm sap.
tope: grove of trees, commonly of coconut or palmyras.
toni or tony (also dhoney or dony): a small native sailing vessel; a ferry boat.
Veddas: aborigines of Sri Lanka who inhabited the island prior to the arrival of immigrant settlers from India; remnant tribal group who lived in the forest/jungle area in northern and eastern Sri Lanka in C19th.
vihar: Buddhist place of worship.
VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie): Dutch East India Company; established in 1602.
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