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Decr. 4.
Saturday. Early this morning arrived in Tellicherry Roads. — The Major went on shore to wait on Mr. Taylor the Chief of Tellicherry. In the Evening, Major Stirling with Four Companies of the Regiment disembark'd; Capt. Whitelocke with the remaining Five remained on board the Hercules. —

Decr. 5.
The Drake Cruizer with the Commander in chief, his Suite, and the 77th. Light Infantry, on board, Anchored early this morning, in Tellicherry Roads; and soon afterwards, Genl. Abercromby went on shore. —

The Scorpion [**indecipherable **] of our Regiment, disembark'd from the Hercules, this afternoon and were Quartered in the Verandoes [sic] of Houses in the Bazar [sic] of Tellicherry; Capt. Montresor with his Light company, disembarked from the Drake the same Evening. — Before I came on shore I received a very friendly Note from Captain Donald Cameron of the Bombay 1st. European Regt. encamped at Durmapatam a few miles from Town; and on my going on shore an Orderly Serjeant waited on me with an Invitation from Capt. John Mc.Donald of the same Corps, but Quartered in Town, to come to his House, and make it my Quarters; which, I accepted of; I was but slightly acquainted with Capt. Macdonald, and therefore, not entitled to such friendly attention; but my good Friend Capt. Cameron, as he was not in Town himself, took care that one of his Friends should be ready to accommodate me with quarters; and had spoken to Capt. Mc.Donald to receive me in the polite and friendly manner I have mentioned. I accompanied Capt. Macdonald to the house of Major Jones, Commanding officer of Artillery; where, we supped, with a large Company of Ladies and Gentlemen; after Supper I return'd with Capt. Mc.Donald to his Quarters; where I slept, and lodged during my stay at Tellicherry. —

Decr. 6.
The Scorpion Cruizer, wh. Lt. Col. Balfour on board, the Battilas and Boats with the 12th. Battn. of Sepoys, Military Stores and Baggage, all arrived this morning. I waited after Breakfast on Mr. Taylor the Chief of Tellicherry, where the Commander in chief at present resides, I met here with my Friend Capt. Cameron, who had come in from Camp to wait on the Commander in chief. — A General Court Martial, of which Major Stirling was President and myself a Member, having been order'd to assemble for the trial of Capt. Anderson of the 1st. Bombay Regt. for Disrespectful behaviour to his Commanding Officer Lt. Col. Peche, met this agreeable to orders, and commenced the Trial.

At Four OClock this afternoon, agreeable to General Orders, our Regiment Paraded and marched from Tellicherry to Encamp at Durmapatam; a very pretty Hill form'd into an Island, by the confluence of two rivers, and distant about Three Miles north from Tellicherry; – we had to cross two small Rivers in going to it, in Boats called Jangards (two Canoes joined) and did not reach our Ground untill [sic] Seven OClock at night; the Tents of the Regiment thro' some mistake and carelessness were not brought up; by which means the Men were obliged to ly [sic] on the Ground in the open air all night, under a heavy Rain which began to fall at Eight OClock at night, and continued all night and the greatest Part of the next day. After seeing my Company lodge and secure their Arms within a Shade I return'd to Tellicherry, on account of my being obliged to attend as Member of the General Court Martial early next morning; – it rained hard and the night was very dark, and I should never have found my way back, had it not been for the kindness of Capt. Cameron's, his Massaljee having guided and lighted me all the way back to Tellicherry.

Decr. 9.
The General Court Martial was this day dissolved and their Sentence approved, which was, that Capt. Anderson should be publickly reprimanded by the Commander in chief and make an apology at the Head of the Regiment to his Commanding Officer Lt. Col. Peche. — After dining with Capt. Macdonald and sending off my Servants and Baggage before me, I set out with Capt. Macdonald for Durmapatam Camp, where we arrived about Sun–sett; [sic] after visiting my Company, I went to Capt. Cameron's Tent where I staid all night, my own Tent not being Pitched. —

Decr. 10.
Friday. At Six OClock this morning the 77th. and 1st. Bombay Regts. marched from Durmapatam towards Egar Hill, to form the new line of Encampment, with the Sepoy Battalions already encamped under the Command of Major Dow, agreeable to General Orders. — Egar Hill in a northerly direction is about Six Miles distant from Durmapatam; — we marched most part of the way along a fine Beach; – crossed two Rivers the first in Jangards, but the last we forded. — Arrived at our line of Encampment on Egar Hill at Twelve OClock; where we found the Commander in Chief Major General Abercromby with his Suite before us. — The Tents were not come up, so that the Troops were for the whole of this day and part of the next, exposed to the heat of the Sun and a good deal of Rain which fell at night. — The line of Encampment fronted northerly towards Cananore, our Right towards the Ghauts, and our left towards the Sea; the Enemy were strongly posted on the Heights about a Mile on our Front covering the Town of Cananore – about a Mile in the rear of the new line of Encampment, and on the Ground that Major Dow with the Sepoys occupied, the Troops Halted for a short time when the following Arrangement and Division of our little Army was made by the General vizt. — Two Companies of Artillery with the Lascars under the command of Major Jones, The 77th. Regt. commanded by Major Stirling, the 2d. Battn. N. Infantry commanded by Capt. Burchall, and the 10th. Battn. N. Infy. Commanded by Capt. Wiseman formed the Right Brigade under the command of Lieut. Colonel James Balfour; Lieut. Chas. Erskine 77th. Regt. Major of Brigade; – the 1st. Bombay European Regt. Commanded by Capt. Jno. Mc.Donald, the 3d. Battn. N. Infy. commanded by Capt Oakes, formed the Left Brigade under the command of Lieut. Colonel Peche, Lieut. Hook Major of Brigade; – a Flank Corps was formed under the command of Major Dow consisting of Nine Companies vizt. – the 77th. Grenadiers and Lt. Infantry – 1st. Grenadiers Bombay Regt., One Sepoy Grenadier Compy. from the 2d. Battn. Native Infantry, One from the 3d. Battn., One from the 10th. Battn., One from the 12th. Battn., and Two from the 6th. Battn. of N. Infantry (left in Garrison at Tellicherry under the command of Capt. Murray) — this Corps, as soon as we arrived on our new line of Encampment, was advanced about a quarter of a Mile on our Front to watch the motions of our Enemy. — Capt. Dacer was at the Head of the Engineer Department, and Thomas Nixon Wensley Esqr. was appointed Dy. Paymr. Genl. and Commissary of Provisions, to the Army. — The General's Staff and Suite, were Major Sinclair Deputy Adjutant General, Major of Brigade Auchmuty Military Secretary, Lieutenants Wilson and Sandiford Aids de Camps; and Mr. Galley Private Secretary; – these arrangements being made the General with his Suite return'd to Tellicherry in the Evening; leaving the command of the Line to Lt. Col. Balfour the Senior Officer in Camp. — I Pitched my Tent in the Evening.

Decr. 11.
Saturday. The Tents of the Regiment came up and were Pitched. — I dined today with Col. Balfour, who had a visit in the Evening from the Rajah of Cartanad [?] just arrived in Camp at the Head of Two Thousand five Hundred Nairs to join our Army; – these Troops belong to the Rajahs in alliance with us vizt. the Cartanad, the Cottiote, the Cherica, and the Corga Rajahs, who have all been cruelly oppressed for some years past by the Tyranny of Tippoo Saib, and now are come to join the British Forces to revenge their injuries upon him, and to be reinstated in the possession of their Lands and Property so long withheld from them by him. — Our little Army, Europeans and Sepoys altogether amount to about Four Thousand Fighting Men; and the late reinforcement of the Troops of the Rajahs in alliance, makes our force now very respectable. —

Decr. 12.
Sunday. General Abercromby with his Suite and Staff arrived in Camp from Tellicherry, and affirmed the command of the Army, now ready to move on any Service. —

Decr. 14.
Tuesday. — Early this morning, as soon as the Tents were Struck and the Baggage loaded, agreeable to the Orders of the preceding day, the Line moved forward towards the Enemy in Column of Half Companies from the Right; the Field Pieces attached to Corps and Battalions in the front of the Heads of Columns of Corps, and the Park of Artillery marched in the center between the Right and Left Brigades: — the General with his Suite preceded the front Column of the Right Brigade; — in this order the Army marched, flanked by the Nairs, (the Troops of the Rajahs in alliance) from the Ground it occupied near Egar about Six OClock in the Morning, and moved forward for some time without being molested by the Enemy, who were observed strongly posted on the Heights to the Southward and Eastward of Cananore, fortified with Redoubts of Masonry and Stockadoes [sic] Forts to cover them; — Our Line moved on a Height parallel to their Right; about Nine OClock, after a very slow march of about two miles, the Front Halted on a Hill, at the termination of which and within about Fifteen Hundred Yards was situated the Fort of Avery with a few Pieces of Cannon in it and defended by Tippoos Troops; — the Line immediately formed and loaded; Our Right extended to the left of Avery to the brow of the Hill, our center was opposite to the Enemy's Right, and our left extended to a Ridge of Hills on the Flanks of their Right; a deep creek or valley ran Parallel to our front, between us and the Enemy Posted on the opposite Height of Carley Hill, at the termination of which was situated a Strong Fort called Carley; to dislodge the Enemy from these two Forts was found necessary to be effected; before the Troops could enter upon any other operations; [sic] a small Battery was for this purpose immediately errected [sic] near the Right of the Line to reduce the Fort of Avery, to which Three Eighteen Pounders were brought up by the Elephants and in about an hour opened upon the Fort; but the distance being too great for battering in Breach, our shot did no execution; the fire was, however, kept up from our Battery for some time, and was very smartly return'd from the Enemy from Avery Fort, but their Guns were so badly directed that few of their Shot did us any hurt, most of them having come a great way over out Line; — the Fort of Carley opened its fire from Two Guns upon the Center of our line; but, without effect, their shot falling short of the front of our line about Three Hundred Yards; some of the Enemy Posted opposite to our Center Sniped from the Jungle in the Valley a good deal at our Line and a number of their shot lighted close to our Mens Feet, but none were touched, except one Man of the 77th. who had a Biscuit that was in his Pocket, broke to Pieces by a Spent Musquet Ball; a number of Rockets were thrown by the Enemy also at our Line, without doing us any injury. —

About Eleven OClock, the Enemy made a very spirited attack on our own Right with Rockets and Musquetry, with a view to Possess themselves of the Battery raised against Avery Fort, which the Nairs very gallantly repulsed, and obliged them very soon to retire with loss without approaching near enough to hurt our line or occasion its moving; a great many of the Enemy were killed during this attack, and our Allies the Nairs lost a number of Men also, killed and wounded during the conflict and before they obliged the Enemy to retreat under Cover of the Fire of their Guns from Avery Fort. — About Three OClock in the afternoon, the General finding that the Battery was errected [sic] at too great a distance to demolish Avery Fort, order'd the Guns to cease firing altogether, and the Line to ly [sic] upon their Arms during the rest of the day and ensuing night; this day was remarkably warm indeed, our Men, however, tho' standing under Arms the whole day, fortunately did not suffer from the extreme heat of the Sun. —

I was warned in the Evening, with two Subalterns, and Sixty Men of our Regiment, for a Working Party to attend the Chief Engineer; several other Parties under the command of Subalterns were order'd from the Line to join mine which they did at Sun–set at the Battery errected [sic] today, where we waited untill [sic] it was dark to prevent the Enemy from seeing us; the Enemy were in the mean time order'd to Pile up their Arms and take off their Accoutrements, and being shortly afterwards Served out with Working Tools, they were set to work to dig Earth and fill Sand Bags for constructing a New Battery nearer Avery Fort by Four Hundred Yards than the first one raised; the enemy fired a good deal in the direction of the Place where the Men were at Work, and One Man of the 77th. was slightly wounded in the Shoulder; as soon as sufficient number of Sand Bags were filled and the Spot for errecting [sic] the Battery fixed upon, the Party were ordered by the engineer to carry all the materials to the place which were immediately complied with and the constructing of the Battery was commenced about Twelve OClock; the night was as clear – it being moon light, that the Enemy, who were advanced so close to us that we could hear them speak, saw very plainly, what we were about, and kept up a very heavy fire of Musquetry upon us during the whole night from the moment they saw us advance with the Materials for raising the Battery; the whole of the Party, Europeans and Sepoys, under my command behaved remarkably well, working hard and very steadily notwithstanding the very galling fire from the Enemy: – One Poor Sepoy was mortally wounded just as he was laying down his Sand Bag on the Ground; except this Man, who died next morning of his wounds, I had no more of my Party hurt, which was surprising considering the unremitting heavy fire kept up by the Enemy. — About Three in the morning when the Battery was almost finished, a fresh working Party was sent from the Line to relieve mine, and I consequently marched off with my Working Party (who were very much fatigued with hard working) to the Line where I dismissed them to repose themselves for a few hours.

Decr. 15.
Wednesday. The new Battery now advanced within Breaching distance of Avery Fort, being completely finished early this morning and the Guns brought up, a heavy fire commenced from three Eighteen Pounders at Seven OClock upon Avery Fort, which return'd our Fire for some time pretty warmly; but in about an hour was totally silenced, and a great part of the Walls of the Fort demolished; and on a Party being advanced with Cannon to Storm, the Enemy abandoned the Works with precipitation.

At the same time; the Left Brigade advanced in Line, passed a Valley in their Front, and without halting, possessed themselves of the Heights of Carley, on which a large Body of the Enemy was posted, who made but a very short stand behind their Stockadoes [sic] and Dykes, while our Brigade advanced up the Hill rapidly in Line and drove the Enemy before them, who took shelter under the Fire of Carley Fort; from whence they retired through Cananore to their Camp at Night.

In the course of the Night of the 15th., a Battery was raised within Breaching distance of the Fort at Carley, which surrendered at [**] OClock.

Decr. 16.
We were now in possession of all the heights to the Southward of Cananore, and the situation of Tippoo's Troops became to them particularly alarming: if they remained, by a short march we posted ourselves on strong Ground between Billipatam River and Cananore, and effectually shut them up: – if they abandoned their strong Ground, and attempted to retire, it was impossible they could cross the River before our Army came up with them. — Thus circumstanced, they offered to capitulate; in the Evening the articles were agreed on, and Hostages were sent by the Bibbee of Cananore up to Tellicherry, and by Tippoos General into our Camp; the terms they stipulated were, that they should lay down their Arms, engage not to serve again during the War; and deliver up all Circer [sic](Government) but keep all Private Property. —

Decr. 17.
Friday. Early this morning the Army moved forward and occupied the Heights above Cananore and the Enemy's Camp; and as soon as our line formed in front of and facing their Encampment, they marched out opposite to the Left of our Line, where they laid down their Arms, to the amount of between Four or Five Thousand Fighting Men, besides a Prodigious number of Followers; and after this humiliating ceremony was over, they marched along the Front of our Line, to a Place alloted [sic] for them on the right, where a Guard was placed over them and proper Provisions supplied to them untill [sic] they were sent away to their own Country. — A Flag of Truce was then sent to the Fort of Cananore, which the Bibbee immediately surrendered at discretion; and Capt. Wiseman with Twelve Companies of his Battalion was ordered to take Possession of it. — At the same time Major Dow was detached with the Flank Corps and Two Field Pieces to Billipatam Fort, on the Banks of the River of that name, which also with its Garrison of Eighty Men surrendered on the same terms as the rest of Tippoos Troops. — There were taken on this occasion, Two of Tippoo's Head Generals, vizt. Mier Mahomed, the Commander in chief, and Seid Mahamood, the second in command; several Officers and about Five Thousand Fighting Men; — Thirty Four Stand of Colours, Two Field Pieces, and about Four Thousand Muskets. — The loss of the Enemy in killed and wounded on this occasion must have been considerable; but could not be exactly ascertained, as it is the custom among the Mahometans [sic] to bury their dead as soon as they are killed. — Our loss was very small when the value and importance of our late success and acquisition is considered: the whole of our killed and wounded on this occasion, in the Europeans, Sepoys, and (of our allies) the Nairs did not exceed Ninety; no Officers were killed, or wounded, excepting Mr. Cochrane, Surgeon to the 2d. Battn. of Native Infantry, who was struck by a spent Cannon shot on the Breast slightly, which bruised and stunned him a good deal, but not dangerously. Our Prize money upon this occasion is not likely to be much: – The Bibbee being allow'd to keep all her Private Property, and she took care we should not find Treasure or Publick [sic] Stores in the Town or Fort of Cannanore, [sic] having, as soon as she heard that she was to be attacked, sent off all her valuables to the Lacadive [sic] Islands, which belong to her; a good deal of Grain is likely, from what we are told to be found between Cananore and Billipatam, which with the Guns, Arms, Stores and Circar Horses already taken from the Enemy, will amount to a little Money. — In the Evening, the Line of Encampment being mark'd out, and our Tents and Baggage being brought up to the new Ground, the Tents were Pitched. Our Line of Encampment was on a Ridge of hills, about a mile from the Town of Cananore, fronting nearly north East; our Right towards the Ghauts and Left to the Sea, covering the Town and Fort of Cananore. — The Advanced Corps under Major Dow, encamped on the Banks of Billipatam River, about Five Miles in our Front. — As soon as the Tents were Pitched and the Regt. dismissed, I took a walk along with Capt. Whitelocke to see the Town and fort of Cananore. — The Town stands at the Bottom of a very fine Bay a beautiful Situation and surrounded by a very fine rich Country; the Bibbee's Durbar or Palace is a very good Building, something in the English stile; [sic] the rest are rather indifferent; the Town is large but the Streets are all very narrow; there are a great many Mosques or Temples in different Parts of the Town, in which the Moormen Perform their daily ablutions and worship. We walked through the Town and along a fine Beach to the Fort, which is built of stone and surrounded with a wet Ditch, and is tho' not regular, a very strong Fortification: – its of a Triangular form and situated on a Point of Land that stretches into the Sea on the right of the Town. — The Bibbee or Queen of Cananore was at this time in her House within the Fort, not a very elegant one; but we could not be gratified with a sight of Her Majesty, as she was shut up in her most retired Apartment, mourning the loss of her lately deceased Husband, Ally Rajah, who had died on the night of the Day (14th.) we came before Avery Fort; and it was strongly suspected that he was carried off by Poison by the Private directions of his now afflicted consort, and the reason assigned is, that he was so strongly attached to the interest of Tippoo Saib that he never would hear of or allow the Bibbee to surrender the Fort of Cananore to the British Troops while he was alive; they found it, therefore, necessary to save many lives and the Fort being taken by Storm, to dispatch the poor old Rajah. After a pleasant walk returned to Camp, and just came in time to mount the Out Line Picquet of our Brigade. — My Friend, Surgeon Colin Anderson and myself mess and live together in One Tent, and enjoy one another's society very comfortably.

Decr. 20.
Monday. — The Circar Horses captured from the Enemy were this day sold by the Prize Agents at Publick [sic] Auction; at which I purchased a very pretty chestnut coloured Mare, between Five and Six year old and between fourteen and Fifteen Hands high, for Ninety Rupees; I have got the loan of a very elegant Saddle and Bridle from my old chum Honble. Lt. Cochrane, so that I am now handsomely Mounted, – and I am lucky enough to have hired a very good Horsekeeper, whom I procured among the Prisoners of War lately taken; and also a Pair of very good Bullocks for Eighteen Rupees to carry our Tent. — The Commander in chief left Camp this Evening and embark'd at Cananore on board the Phoenix Frigate Capt. Byron, in which he went down to the Southward on a visit to Lieut. Colonel Hartley's Detachment now at Ferokabad on the Paniana River distant about Sixty Miles; the intention and object of this visit is supposed to be, to settle some business, previous to that Detachment joining us here. — The Pheonix [sic] Frigate, and her zealous and indefatigable Commander, Capt. Byron has attended all our operations, and co–operated with our little Army ever since our arrival on the Malabar Coast.

Decr. 24.
The Commander in chief returned to Camp. I went out today on a visit to Billipatam Camp, where I agreed and settled with Captain Montresor, to act for him, as Paymaster to the 77th. Regiment during the continuance of the War, as he could not act in that capacity himself on account of his being detached with the Light Infantry; I accordingly received his Books, and took upon myself the duties and responsibility of Regimental Paymaster from the 24th. day this Month of December 1790.

Decr. 26.
The Line changed Ground to the Left this morning about Half a mile, preserving the same Front as formerly.

Decr. 27.
Capt. Oakes with his Battn. of Sepoys and Two Companies of the 1st. Bombay E. Regt. (Mc.Donald's & Cameron's) a Detachment of Artillery and Two Field Pieces, marched from Camp this morning to the Southward, in order to reinstate the Cartanad Rajah in his former Possessions, part of which being still in the Possession of Tippoo's Troops vizt. Barrygurry and Cottipore Forts — the last is his Capital and this Detachment is now sent to take both Places. —

Decr. 29.
I wrote letters of this date, to Bombay, Per the Worcester Indiaman which sailed this Evening, to Mr. Bruce, Mr. Henshaw, Lt. Hill 75th. Regt., & Ensn. Whitla 77th. Regt., on business as Paymaster to the Regiment.

Accounts were received in Camp that Lieut. Genl. Earl Cornwallis the Governor General and Commander in chief in India, arrived at Madras with his Suite about the middle of this month from Calcutta, in the Vestal Frigate, in order to take upon himself the command of the Grand Army and direction of carrying on the War.

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Macquarie, Lachlan. Journal No. 1: 15 December 1787 – 24 March 1792.
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A768 pp.196–225. [Microfilm Reel CY299 Frames #104–118].

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