R - Z
Ramsgate (Kent, England)
Channel port, noted in Macquarie's time for its excellent artificial harbour (which was completed at the end of 1792) . Located on the E. coast of the Isle of Thanet, near the mouth of the Thames. Served mainly as a refuge for merchant ships and had a capacity for up to 200 vessels.
Riley's Farm (NSW)
Farm named 'Raby' belonging to Alexander Riley.
Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
City and port. [Usually referred to as Rio]. Discovered by the Portuguese explorer Amerigo Vespucci who entered the the landlocked bay on 1 January 1502, and named it Rio de Janeiro, 'January River,' mistakenly assuming that it was the entrance to a great river. In 1565 a city was founded on this bay and called 'Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro'.
Rio Grande (Brazil)
Port for the city of Porto Alegre (in southern Brazil). The city lies along the Rio Grande River and is located on a low, sandy peninsular near the entrance to Lagoa dos Patos (Patos Lagoon) where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
The city provided a natural entrepot for Brazilian traders exporting the agricultural produce of northern and central Rio Grande do Sul to Britain and Europe (and importing of industrial trade goods).
Rotherhithe (Surrey, England)
Located on southern bank of the Thames River (within a loop of the river on the north-east corner of the London Borough of Southwark). The Surrey Commercial Docks occupied much of this area. Rotherhithe faces Wapping across the Thames.
Roxburgh Place (NSW)
Farm (150 acres) at Baulkham Hills. Received as a grant by Andrew McDougall on 12 November 1799.
St. Helena (South Atlantic Ocean)
Island of volcanic origin in the South Atlantic Ocean, 1,200 miles (1,950 km) west of the southwestern coast of Africa. St. Helena has an area of 47 square miles (122 sq. km).
Discovered by the Portuguese navigator, Joao da Nova Castella, in 1502; afterwards possessed briefly by the Dutch (1645-51), and taken possession of (in 1659) by the English East India Company.
The remoteness of St. Helena made it attractive to the European powers as a place of exile for Napoleon after his defeat at Waterloo. He remained confined on the island from October 1815 until his death there in May 1821.
Lachlan Macquarie visited St. Helena in March 1803 while returning to England after fifteen years of overseas military service in India (and Egypt).
St. Helens (Isle of Wight, England)
St. Helens was an advanced anchorage to Spithead, located off the eastern side of the Isle of Wight. [Also referred to as 'St. Helen's Road']. It guarded the approaches to Portsmouth harbour and the important naval and dockyard facilities located there. Ships bound to the westward remained at St. Helens until an easterly wind allowed them to sail down the Channel. The Macquaries boarded their ship, the Dromedary, at St. Helens on 19 May 1809 and set sail for New South Wales [via the Cape of Good Hope] on 22 May 1809, accompanied by H.M. Hindostan.
St. Salvadore (also spelt St. Salvador) (Brazil)
St. Salvadore (Bahia) was the most important city of the Portuguese colony of Brazil until the 1820's when the success of the coffee industry in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo created a shift in economic and political power towards these other centres.
The Portuguese Court was resident in Brazil from 1808-1821. When the Surry visited St. Salvadore the colony was on the edge of major political change - though this is not evident in Lachlan Macquarie's 1822 journal. The Portuguese Court had been resident in Brazil 1808-1821. However, within months of the Macquaries departure, Brazil had declared its independence from Portugal (7 September 1822), and the Portuguese garrisons found themselves cut off by sea. Nearly all armed forces were persuaded to evacuate peacefully, and after complex international negotiations Brazil was recognised as a separate empire. The King of Portugal declared the independence of the Brazilian empire, by treaty, on 29 August 1825. Resistance was strongest in the region surrounding St. Salvadore and it did not gain its independence until 1823.
The main product of St. Salvadore was sugarcane, cultivated in the fertile soil of the Reconcavo, ( literally "bay shore,") the region surrounding the Bay of All Saints. Heavy, black, fertile soil called Massape covers the surrounding landscape Cotton, tobacco, and manioc (cassava) were also grown. The declining importance of its exports contributed to St. Salvadore (Bahia) becoming a second-class province in the period after 1823 until the end of the empire in 1889.
Schank's Plains (NSW) (also known asSchank's Forest Plains)
Named after Captain John Schank, the designer of H.M. armed tender Lady Nelson.
The "new school house" mentioned by Macquarie when travelling down the Hawkesbury in 1810 is now the Presbyterian Church at Ebenezer. It was erected in 1809 and is the oldest existing church building in Australia.
Seringapatam (Mysore, India)
City in southern India (near present-day Mysore). Located on an island in the Cauvery River, the ancient fortress city of Seringapatam was the capital of Mysore, and the site of two of the most famous sieges of the Anglo-Mysore Wars (in 1792 and 1799).
Lachlan Macquarie took part in the initial assault against Seringapatam in 1791; and the disastrous retreat that followed which left him close to death from dysentery in April 1792. The ruler of Mysore, Tippoo Sultan, sued for peace during a second assault against the city on 24 February 1792. Macquarie received a gratuity of £308 10s in lieu of prize-money and back in Bombay he eventually recovered his health, though the campaign left him with indelible memories.
When war with Tippoo Sultan broke out again in 1799, Macquarie's regiment was among those sent to attack Seringapatam. Again he suffered serious illness and had to be carried on a stretcher to witness the final assault on the city on May 4. The carnage that followed was horrific, and eventually Colonel Arthur Wellesley (the future Duke of Wellington) was ordered by Lord Harris to take over command from Major-General David Baird and to end the atrocities of the victors. The Battle of Seringapatam was regarded at the time as one of the most romantic engagements of British Indian history and Macquarie shared in this vision. Though he took no part in the final attack, he always regarded the victory as one of unparalleled glory, and he celebrated the battle with a 'bumper toast' each year. He expected his share in the prize-money to be between £2000 and £3000 sterling, but in fact, although it included seventeen ruby rings, he only received a total of £1300.
Major Henry Antill, Macquarie's aide-de-camp in New South Wales also fought at Seringapatam and was wounded while carrying the colours of the 73rd Regiment through the breach into the city.
Snares, The (South Pacific Ocean - New Zealand)
A group of small islands in the sub-antarctic waters of the South Pacific Ocean. Located 104 km south-west of Stewart Island (New Zealand); of which they are regarded as being distant outliers. There is one large island (North East Island), and a smaller island off to the south-east (Broughton Island), and several smaller offshore islands, outcrops and reefs that could be a danger to shipping.
The islands were discovered independently, on the same day, 23 November 1791, by Captain George Vancouver in the Discovery, and Lieutenant William Broughton of HMS Chatham. The name' the Snares' was propsed by Vancouver, who sighted the islands in the morning; and this took precedence over Broughton's choice of Knights Islands (since he did not sight the islands until the afternoon of that day). The island group was sighted again in December 1792 by Captain Raven of the Britannia.
South-End (Essex, England)
Village in Essex; located at mouth of the Thames estuary, [on the north side]. Nearest sandy beach to London and owes its existence to the Prince Regent (later George IV) who in 1809 decided that the village of Prittlewell would provide a healthier atmosphere for his wife, Princess Caroline, than London. She lodged at Prittelwell's "south end", which henceforth became the town's name.
Spithead (Hampshire, England)
The Spithead was the main assembling point for naval vessels based at Portsmouth. It was well sheltered, with the mainland to the north, the Isle of Wight to the southwest, and various sandbanks to the east. It was relatively easy to get out of and once individual ships had been manned and fitted out they could be sent out to the anchorage to await there while other ships in a squadron or fleet were assembled. The Spithead also provided an important assembly area for large convoys of merchant ships - especially in the area off the Isle of Wight known as St. Helens. Macquarie's ship, the Dromedary, anchored at Spithead for almost five months in 1809 awaiting the completion of its victualling before sailing to New South Wales.
The oldest named town in the Blue Mountains. The military post here was also known as the Weatherboard Hut.
Sutton Forest (NSW)
First visited on 20 March 1798 by Barracks, (Governor Hunter's personal attendant) and the guides, Wilson and Collins. Received its name of 'Sutton Forest' during the visit to the area by Governor Macquarie on 2 November 1820: named after the Rt. Hon. Charles Manners Sutton (1780-1845), then Speaker of the House of Commons, and son of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Syke's Farm (NSW)
The most southerly occupied farm in the Appin district in 1815 belonged to William Sykes (present-day Mount Britain).
Thames River (England)
A broad deep river that penetrated sixty miles inland into the heart of England. It was tidal, navigable and accessible to sea-going ships as far as the city of London. The broad sheltered reaches of the Thames were not subject to excessive flooding, and the natural flow of the river was generally sufficient to maintain the depth of the river channels to provide a port that was not only accessible in all weathers but also spacious and secure. As a consequence, London was a unique example of a great port which was also a capital city.
Townson's Cottage (NSW)
The "cottage" mentioned by Macquarie was on a grant of 50 acres (Portion 119, parish of St. George) It was located on Townson's or Kogarah Bay, an arm of Botany Bay and was a waterside addition to Captain John Townson's main grant of 2,000 acres received on 9 July 1808 . [Portion 115, parish of St. George] in the present Sydney suburbs of Bexley and Hurstville. His house was called 'The Retreat'.
Throsbey's Farm (NSW)
Farm belonging to Charles Throsby named 'Glenfield' at Upper Minto. Macquarie granted him 1,500 acres here in exchange for land grants he had received at Cabramatta and Minto from Lieut-Governors Paterson and Foveaux in the period 1808 -1809. He named the farm after his birthplace in Glenfield, near Leicester, England.
Tristan Da Cunha
Volcanic island group in the South Atlantic Ocean. Discovered in 1506 by Portuguese navigator Admiral Tristao da Cunha, after whom the principal island, as well as the group was named. Located approximately midway between South America and southern Africa. The island of Tristan has an area of 38 square miles (98 square km) and is roughly circular, with an active central volcanic cone (6,760 [2,060 m]) which last erupted in 1961, forcing a temporary evacuation. Other islands in the group include Inaccessible, Nightingale, and Gough Island.
British and American sealers set up temporary quarters at Tristan from the mid-eighteenth century. In 1816 the island group was annexed by Britain, and a garrison established on the principal island. When the garrison was withdrawn the following year three of its members chose to remain, and over the years they were joined by shipwrecked sailors, settlers of European extraction and women from the British island colony of St Helena.
The islands (especially Inaccessible, and Nightingale) are noteworthy for the millions of seabirds that nest and roost on their cliffs and shores. [A fact suspected, though not observed, by Elizabeth Macquarie; and noted in her 1809 journal].
Two Cows, The (Isle of Wight, England)
Seaport located on the Isle of Wight [12 miles SE of Southampton]. Two villages (East Cowes and West Cowes) situated on either side of the Cowes or Medina formed an excellent harbour. It was used by coastal shipping for trade and provisioning, and a mail packet (in Macquarie's time) sailed to Southampton every day at noon.
Ulva, Isle of (Inner Hebrides, Scotland)
Small rocky island adjacent to the Isle of Mull, separated by a narrow crossing of only a few hundred yards. Birthplace of Lachlan Macquarie on 31 January 1761 (most probably at Ormaig).
The island belonged to the Clan MacQuarrie for many hundreds of years, but was sold in 1800 to meet the indebtedness of the clan chief (Lachlan MacQuarrie, 16th laird of Ulva - and the last) who lived out his days on the estate of Charles Macquarie (younger brother of Lachlan Macquarie).Dr Samuel Johnson and James Boswell visited the island, and were entertained by the MacQuarrie chief during their tour of the Hebrides in 1773.
Uther's Farm (NSW)
Property of 400 acres belonging to Reuben Uther near the junction of Menangle Creek and theNepean River (later known as the 'Mount Gilead' estate).
Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
The name given to Tasmania by its European discoverer Abel Tasman in 1642, in honor of the governor of the Dutch East Indies, Anthony Van Diemen (1593 - 1645). The name was officially changed to Tasmania on 17 December 1855 - to help distinguish the colony from its earlier history as a penal settlement. [Also referred to in early historical writings as Van Dieman's Land].
Wallis' Plains (NSW)
Named by Macquarie on 31 July 1818. Area now comprising Maitland.
Wapping (Kent, England)
Located on the N. bank of the Thames [2 miles E. of St. Paul's]. Wapping Entrance was the original entrance into London Docks, designed by the engineer John Rennie. In 1805 the lock was 40 feet wide and 170 feet long with a depth of 23 feet. The London Docks became a vast storehouse for a multitude of different cargoes.
Western Islands, The (Atlantic Ocean)
[see: The Azores].
Woolwich (Kent, England)
Riverside town on the Thames. Site of the Royal Military Academy, the Royal Artillery Barracks, an extensive ordnance works: the Woolwich Arsenal (built on 60 acres), as well as the Woolwich Dockyard.
Woolwich Dockyard (England)
The Royal Dockyard was created by Henry VIII in 1512 -1513, on the Thames foreshore. The dockyard facilities expanded in the 17th and 18th centuries and remained operative until 1869.
Woodriff's Farm (NSW)
Property belonging to Captain Daniel Woodriff.
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