G - K
George Town (Tasmania)
Named by Macquarie after George III in December 1811 as the site for a new town on the Tamar River in northern Tasmania.
George Bass and Matthew Flinders named the Tamar River here Port Dalrymple in 1798. The first party of European settlers landed here under Colonel William Paterson in 1804; however, within weeks Paterson had moved to the west bank of the the Tamar at York Town (now called Beaconsfield). Permanent settlement was established in 1811, prior to Macquarie's visit, and officially surveyed in 1813. At Macquarie's request, the administration of northern Tasmania moved from Launceston to George Town in 1819, but returned there in 1824. The anchorage and nearby bays were used by larger vessels until the port of Launceston became more developed in the late 1820's.
Good Hope, Cape of (South Africa)
The Cape of Good Hope was originally a Dutch colony, founded in 1651 and used as a port of call on the sea route to her colonies in the East Indies. It was captured by the British fleet in 1795, returned to the Dutch in 1801, and then recaptured in 1806 and retained by the British thereafter. It was taken and held chiefly for the benefit of the British East India Company and to prevent the French from using it. Lachlan Macquarie visited it on three occasions; firstly in June 1788 (for 10 days) on his first voyage to India, on his return to England in March 1803, and lastly in September/October 1809 (for 20 days).
The Cape had no safe anchorage. Table Bay was exposed to the wind and sea of the South Atlantic Ocean and was usable only in the summer months; in winter, ships were anchored at Simon's Bay (in False Bay), about thirty miles away from Cape Town by sea. Each time Macquarie visited the Cape, he took the opportunity for sightseeing and socialising after long sea voyages, the anchorage for his ships varied: Simon's Bay in 1788, and Table Bay in 1803 and 1809.
Government Hut (near Camden, NSW)
This hut was situated on the northern bank of the Nepean River, at the Cowpasture Bridge, on entering Camden. It is shown on a map of New South Wales by Charles Grimes (Surveyor in N.S.W. from 1790 and Surveyor-General from 1794. Grimes was absent from the Colony on a visit to England from 1803 to 1806 and left the Colony again in 1808). The map is reproduced in Historical Records of N.S.W. vol. VI, opposite p. 410. The date of this map is approximately 1803 with additions to 1806.
Gravesend (Kent, England)
Town and location for Thames River pilot boats; area fringed by wide estuarine marshes and associated shoal flats. Vessels would anchor in Gravesend Reach, which was straight and deep and unimpeded by shifting banks. All movement above Gravesend, both in and out of the Thames was largely governed by the tides.
Green Hills (NSW)
Green-Lythe (Essex, England)
Hassall's Farm (NSW)
Farm located on the eastern bank of the Nepean River, named 'Macquarie Grove' - belonged to Rowland Hassall. It is the present day site for Camden Airport.
Hawkesbury River (NSW)
Important waterway flowing into Broken Bay, north of Sydney. Named by Governor Phillip in June 1789 in honour of Charles Jenkinson (1727-1808), first Earl of Liverpool and first Baron Hawkesbury. The Aboriginal name was Deerubbin, now variously spelt, and said to mean 'wide deep water.' The river is tidal for about one-third of its course; tributaries include the Nepean, Grose, Colo and Macdonald rivers.
European settlement commenced along its banks in 1794 when Lt.Gov. Grose installed 22 settlers at the South Creek confluence and farming was established on its fertile river flats. By 1798 a small village known as Green Hills (later Windsor) had developed. The first settlers cultivated wheat and maize, and in the early years the Hawkesbury district was the chief granary for the colony. Flooding of the river became one of the major challenges and hardships for the early settlers of the district.
Conflict with the local Dharug people was at times severe and ferocious - with a number of deaths on both sides: for prior to white settlement the area was a rich source of food for the Dharug who fished in the river for mullet, netted birds in the river (and adjacent creeks and swamps), as well as trapping eels in the lagoons, digging up yams on the alluvial flats, and hunting marsupials in the nearby bush. European occupation of the river banks inevitably led to the destruction of the Aboriginal economy - and frontier war was its unfortunate outcome.
Hobart Town (Tasmania)
Named Hobart Town in 1804 after Lord Hobart, Secretary of State for Colonies; the abbreviated form of Hobarton occasionally appears. Hobart Town gradually supplanted the Derwent as the name for the port.
When Macquarie visited in 1811 the town was a straggle of makeshift huts; as a consequence, he ordered a survey and the introduction of building regulations. Became the administrative centre for all of Van Diemen's Land in 1813. Developed as an important base for South Sea whalers, and also became a major shipbuilding centre.
Horn, Cape (Tierra del Fuego, Chile)
Location: 55 59' S, 67 16' W
The southernmost point of South America [more correctly Cape Hoorn or Kaap Van Hoorn]. Rocky headland 424 m high on Horn Island in Tierra del Fuego. Notorious for stormy weather and heavy seas.
Francis Drake has long been credited with the discovery of Cape Horn in 1577 on board the Pelican (later renamed The Golden Hind [100 tons]). However, the cape was first rounded on 29 January 1616 by the Dutch seamen Jacob le Maire and Willem Schouten, passing through the strait between Staten Island (Isla de los Estrodos) and Tierra del Fuego, which they named the Strait of Le Maire ( Estrecho de la Maire), and round Cape Horn, which they named in honour of Schouten's birthplace, the town of Hoorn in Holland, and also where the ship had been fitted out.
'False Cape Hoorn' is the southern extremity of Tierra del Fuego, whereas the true Cape Hoorn is on Hoorn Island, a little further south. [It became Cape Horn in English and Cabo de Hornos (the Cape of Ovens) in Spanish.
Hythe (Kent, England)
Coastal town (one of the original Cinque Ports). Located on the eastern edge of Romney Marsh near Folkestone.
The first surveys of grants were made late in November and early in December 1816 by John Oxley and James Meehan. The grants were given by Macquarie in 1817. In his journal Macquarie mentions 1817 grants to David Allan, Robert Jenkins, Richard Brooks and Lieut. Colonel George Johnston.
Jamison Valley (NSW)
Named after Sir John Jamison (1776 - 1844). The valley referred to by Macquarie is the site of the town of Wentworth Falls. The Governor gave the name of Prince Regent's Glen to the valleys now named Jamieson, Megalong and Kanimbla.
'Jarvisfield' (Isle of Mull, Scotland)
Lachlan Macquarie's estate on the Isle of Mull that he had acquired by purchase from his uncle Murdoch Maclaine (18th laird of Lochbuie) in 1803, with additional purchases (later) from the Duke of Argyll. At the time of his return to England in 1822 Lachlan owned 21,128 acres - these included all the key landholdings straddling the narrow isthmus connecting the northern and southern portions of Mull. Macquarie had named his estate 'Jarvisfield' in memory of his first wife, Jane Jarvis, who had died from tuberculosis in 1796 (in China).
Kealy's Repulse (NSW)
[see Caley's Repulse].
Kent's Farm (NSW)
Kershaw's Farm (NSW)
Lieut. William Kent received several land grants in the Eastern Farms district (Ryde). The farm referred to here was a grant of 1,000 acres on the Cowpastures road. It was issued by Paterson on 21 February 1809 and was called Belvedere. The grant was disallowed by Macquarie and became part of William Campbell's 2,000 acres, portion 60, parish of Cook.
The farm was a grant to William Waring, transferred to Joseph Kershaw in 1804. It was portion 38, parish of Wilberforce, on the road from Windsor to Wilberforce.
Site of the original Government Hut for the Cowpastures region near Camden - now known as Elderslie.
Mrs. King's Farm (NSW)
Mrs. Anna Josepha King. On 1 January 1806, Governor King made grants totalling 2,340 acres to his son Phillip, aged 14, and to his daughters Anna Maria, aged 12, Elizabeth, aged 8, and Mary, aged 11 months. On 1 January 1807, Governor Bligh made a grant of 790 acres to Mrs. King. These farms adjoined one another on the South Creek, north of St. Mary's. They were worked as one property by the widowed Mrs. King, then in England, on behalf of herself and her children. Rowland Hassall was her agent.
Kloof, The (South Africa)
Also kloaf', 'kloff' [from Dutch 'clove': cleft]
In place names indicating a narrow, natural pass between mountains; a gorge or valley; a ravine running running down a mountainside
Present-day Cobbity, near Camden.
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